UJI KOMPETENSI GURU (UKG)
Berdasarkan kepentingan pemerintah untuk melakukan pemetaan kompetensi guru Indonesia, maka dilakukanlah Uji Kompetensi Guru (UKG) secara on line dan off line. Kegiatan ini sebagai tindak lanjut atas dikucurkannya pencairan dana sertifikasi bagi para guru yang secara signifikan tidak mengubah output menjadi lebih baik. Hasil Ujian Nasional (UN) tidak menunjukkan perubahan pengalaman belajar siswa, bahkan lebih buruk lagi, dicurigai UN telah dimanipulasi dengan beredarnya kunci jawaban. Sehingga evaluasi skala nasional ini hasilnya tidak mencerminkan hasil pembelajaran yang sesungguhnya.
Pemerintah mendengungkan bahwa UKG hanya diberikan kepada para guru yang telah lulus sertifikasi baik secara portofolio ataupun PLPG. Sedangkan bagi para guru yang belum memperoleh uji sertifikasi dan masih harus mengikuti kegiatan PLPG, maka diberikan Uji Kompetensi Awal (UKA) yang setara dengan UKG.
Pemerintah seperti telah merasa terkecoh dengan meluluskan sertifikasi para guru lewat portofolio. Alasan untuk ini, katanya ternyata ditemukan beberapa guru telah melakukan kecurangan yang sangat tidak cerdas. Yakni memalsukan beberapa sertifikat serta data-data pedagogik lainnya sehingga lulus hanya dengan diwakili lembaran-lembaran kertas saja. Memperbaiki keadaan ini, maka diputuskan bahwa guru sebaiknya diberi pelatihan keprofesian (PLPG) sehingga secara tidak langsung kompetensi para guru meningkat dan pantas menyandang gelar guru profesional dan sekaligus mendapatkan pencerahan dan penyegaran melalui kegiatan pelatihan.
Setelah sertifikat keprofesionalan guru diedarkan dan dipegang oleh para guru, pemerintah kembali kelimpungan. Sesungguhnya seperti apa gambaran kompetensi guru-guru pada saat ini, belum diketahui. Padahal, pemerintah telah membuat rambu-rambu bahwa guru harus menguasai empat kompetensi, yaitu (1) profesional, (2) pedagogik, (3) kepribadian, dan (4) sosial. Menyadari ada bolong, maka pemerintah segera membuat Penilaian Kinerja Guru (PKG) yang mulai diberlakukan tahun 2013. Pada PKG, pemerintah memberikan rincian menyoal gambaran kinerja dan gambaran guru profesional. Seperti misalnya, untuk menjadi guru profesional, dalam hal perangkat pembelajaran saja, guru harus memiliki paling tidak 13 jenis pelengkap pengadministrasian yang dibuat oleh guru secara individu.
Kini, pemerintah menyelenggarakan UKG, dalam kurun waktu 30 Juli sampai 4 Agustus 2012 katanya. Sekolah-sekolah penyelenggaraan UKG telah ditentukan, kartu-kartu peserta UKG telah disebar ke setiap sekolah. Maka terjadilah chaos diantara para guru. Sebagian menyikapi UKG dengan diam saja, ada pula yang dengan menggerutu, ada pula yang menyambutnya dengan sikap sinis dan menganggap bahwa kegitan ini tidak lain adalah proyek. Proyek pada lingkungan pendidikan memiliki konotasi negatif. Proyek diartikan sebuah kegiatan untuk buang-buang uang, menghabiskan dana untuk mendukung keuntungan segelintir pihak. Sedangkan guru adalah korbannya.
Kisi-kisi UKG memuat pengevaluasian pada wilayah kompetensi profesional dan pedagogik. Sedangkan kompetensi sosial dan kepribadian, tidak diperhitungkan. Atau dengan kata lain, menjadi guru, cukup bisa ngajar (kompetensi pedagogik) dan pintar (profesional), urusan bermoral, tidak peduli, wearing innocent smile, tidak diurus. Kompetesi sosial dan kepribadian guru diabaikan.
Menjelang UKG dilaksanakan, kehebohan merebak disetiap kantor guru. Setiap percakapan hanya dikhususkan untuk UKG saja, percakapan lain, maaf, untuk sementara tidak mendapat tempat. Para guru mengeluhkan ‘apa yang harus dihapalkan’. Inilah gambaran guru kita, masih tidak ragu-ragu mengucapkan kata ‘menghapal’. Menghapal merupakan metode pembelajaran yang telah lama ditinggalkan. Menghapal hampir tidak jauh dengan metode drilling atau tubian, yakni sebuah kegiatan memperoleh pengalaman belajar dengan cara meminta siswa diberi latihan berulang-ulang supaya ingat. Sesuatu yang diperoleh melalui hapalan tentu saja perlahan-lahan akan lupa seiring semakin banyaknya urusan yang harus dipikirkan oleh para guru. Sekarang para guru masih memikirkan apa yang harus dihapal untuk uji kompetensi, ironis!!!
Ketakutan yang mengahantui para guru diekspresikan dengan ajakan ‘boikot UKG’ dan ‘gagalkan UKG’. Jika melihat kekhawatiran yang diungkapkan pada paragraf sebelumnya yakni ‘ketidaktahuan apa yang harus dihapal’, ungkapan boikot UKG, sangat masuk akal. Jika boikot disetujui, maka guru-guru yang khawatir ini akan lepas dari vonis penentuan posisi kompentensi dirinya yang akan terpetakan secara nasional. Dengan kata lain, zona nyaman mereka tidak terganggu.
I joined a seminar on Developing Lesson Plan for EYL at UPI. I should be arriving at 8 in the morning to re-register, but I came very late. I managed to come at around 9.15 in the morning. When I arrived the 1st speaker was explaining ‘thing’ that I could not understand at the beginning. Then I tried to catch what she is being explained, I took a note on what written on the board. Then I could see then, the participants were supported to do a little survey someone who
– Plans in the shower
– Always design a lesson plan before teaching
– Can mention elements of a lesson plan
– Can explain the difference between objectives and indicators
– Can sequence child-friendly activities
All the points written above, in my point of view related to the characteristics of developing instructional design. I put a hope that the seminar would support my quest on lesson planning.
The seminar itself was dedicated for pre-school and preliminary level English teachers. My coming was because the topic catch my eye. Minutes by minutes I joined the seminar in a bit impatient way. My mind went to my chapter one of my thesis. It discuses on giving background why I research lesson planning under genre-based approach. And my coming to Bandung was actually to submit my chapter one. When the break time came, it was at 12, I run to FPBS building to see my supervisor after being informed by her assistance that she was in that building.
I waited. Then I saw my supervisor walking and talking with others. I could not say anything as I knew that she was very busy. I heard that she was having ISO monitoring and assessment. It seemed to me that there would be no chance for me to submit my chapter one. The clock showed it was 13.20. I run back to Language building where I was joining the seminar there. Then I took my lunch box. I saw every participant was eating. Then the second session started. The second speaker did not make me enthusiastic. Sometimes she made fatal mistake that decrease my point of view for her as an expert on young learners. Lay person like me could do such a thing; the difference was that she got a place and moment. I just sighed; my mind went back to my thesis. I began cursed myself, I blamed my unluckiness. Others were doing their first seminar and dreaming about graduation by this August. My position was very worse, my thesis is in chapter one.
Then a text vibrated my gadget. I read that someone from the place where I was looking for a job asked whether he could call me. I replied yes.
He actually had called me four days before. He asked me what days that I could spend to teach in the school where he posts as the curriculum designer. I offered Monday, Friday and Saturday. He said that he was doing teaching table and would put my name on it. As the effect of this, I thought I had a right to dream about standing in front of students who were labeled international standard school.
It was around three in the afternoon, he called me. He informed me that he cancelled and erased my name as a teacher in the international standard school. He mentioned that other had filled the post. The information was in contradictory with what he said before. He said that the school needs at least two teachers to teach 48 hours. He spoke that if I joined it would be the great help for the school. After he told the main point, he added that he wanted my help on the students’ diary. But o knew very well that what he said after the main point was nothing but icebreaking. Even I had a bad impression on him. I concluded that he was nice to me as he needed me and he did jerk thing when he considered himself had a chance to do so, even it is to a person that he called friend.
I felt like he stabbed me from the back. Why he gave a sudden change. The decision was too weird to me. This hurt me much. I had accepted many pains this week. This completed the pain. I cursed my self again, even worse now.
(At the same time, my heart says that perhaps ‘the man who I belief’ who stands beside him that stabbed me, not him directly. Then I suspected both did this me in purpose. Actually, my plan to join international standard school is with a hope that I can give better nuance in this school. I had made enough research on these kind of schools, and got a vivid picture how to teach in this kind of class)
Then the seminar was over, I hurriedly run to FPBS building to see my supervisor, who knows that she had a minute for me to take a glance on my chapter one.
She was there, busy. When she was walking outside, my eye just followed every step she made, and then she would returned to her room when I stopped her and asked her if she had time for me. She said no she is in the middle of ISO program. I forgot what I had mentioned, but she agreed to wait for my hands opening the research questions part. She murmured that she needed to read before she decided what to change in my research questions. What she did for me, at least gave me a relief. I told myself if at least she remembered that I was doing my thesis, perhaps she would also remember that I was one of her students!
It is my first visit to my supervisor after three weeks I did not see her. Three weeks ago she said thing that made my life change and at the same time like falling into endless cliff. It has been almost five months she is supervising my thesis. I visited her regularly to have my writing checked. It seems like she agrees with the topic I am studying, and I continue writing almost finish.
Yet, three weeks ago she said, ‘change your topic, focus on lesson planning’. I could only say yes. I believe what she said is final. Then, I went home and confused.
I got very ill since then, but I try to read and read and buy some books what I think has connection with the new topic. I found many discrepancies on my self. The books I bought some of them have nothing to do with the topic, and at the same time, I did not have any financial power to buy other books. It is like a very perfect day to blame my destiny.
Even though it was very hard, I started writing chapter one-the introduction. The chapter sound very weird to me, but I must submit it or I loose all my chance to be found serious by my supervisor.
Then, I sat in the chair waiting for the supervisor to come. It was eight in the morning. I met another student; he is from class-c. I asked him whether he would do the similar thing as I did. He replied no, but he would have ‘seminar phase one’. Oh gosh, this is too painful. If the supervisor did not turn down my thesis and ask me to write from zero, I would be in his position, waiting for the seminar. The worse, I get penalized to pay the six million school-fees as my writing has not noted joining seminar by this 15 July. I got very angry to myself; it was my stupidity that makes me lost six millions.
Back again to my visit, I wait and wait and wait. My friend who will have seminar was called and did his seminar, but I still wait. My supervisor did not want to see me; she said she had no time to supervise me. I returned home at six in the afternoon and got nothing but sick in the heart. This is unfair.
I almost forgot, before I went home, around five in the afternoon, I met two junior high school English’s teachers. They said ‘you are here, we are here too because we got scholarship to continue my study here for three semester to get our master degree. We were supported by preliminary directorate and now we are on ‘study status’ and we are free from teaching. We were given ‘shortened program’ to get our master degree, so how’s your study?’
The statement above made me see nothing but black. I worked very hard to get my master degree and pay every cent of it from my own pocket and got no help. But they talked about pursuing master degree with all those laugh as if laughing my unfortunate study-life and mock my ‘writing from zero’. I know, they get an easy way to get their degree and then finish their study very soon as the program said so. I could say nothing but smile to their long statement. What a life. I study very hard every day, and get nothing, but they get a very luxurious facility and does nothing just sit down and then the degree comes to them. This is unfair (again).
The next day, I went to school to have my papers signed by my principal. This happens because the directorate of Jakarta turned down my proposal to fulfill my credit rating and get my 4.b leveled. While I am waiting for the principal who is talking with guests, my friends said lightly ‘you know, Mr. X, Mrs. Y, and Mr. Z has just got their promotion of 4.b, they asked for Mrs. T help’s to do so, and paid Mrs. T six millions to get their 4.b. I guess you must also do the same thing, you had proposed you 4.b for a year but no answer and news’. Again this strikes my heart very ugly. I worked very hard using ‘clean way’ and fail, but my friends did nothing ‘using bribery’ and succeed. This is very unfair and sucked.
Anyway, my principal signed the papers. He asked ‘what is this about?’ I said plainly ‘my proposal for 4.b’. Then, I went home as quickly as I can; this is too much; I can’t stand this anymore.
It had to happen.
It happened earlier. Later.
Nearer. Farther off.
It happened, but not to you.
You were saved because you were the first.
You were saved because you were the last.
Alone. With others.
On the right. The left.
Because it was raining. Because of the shade.
Because the day was sunny.
You were in luck — there was a forest.
You were in luck — there were no trees.
You were in luck — a rake, a hook, a beam, a brake,
a jamb, a turn, a quarter-inch, an instant . . .
So you’re here? Still dizzy from
another dodge, close
One hole in the net and you slipped through?
I couldn’t be more shocked or
how your heart pounds inside me
Mengenal GBA = Genre Based Approach tidak dapat dengan mudah dilakukan. Sebelum tahu persis siapa atau mungkin apa itu GBA, kita harus kenal TEKS terlebih dahulu. Kenapa alasan ini diajukan? Jawabannya karena pendekatan GBA diarahkan bukan pada kata-kata atau kalimat atau sekumpulan kata-kata, melainkan pada semantic unit. Sebuah semantic unit tidak ditentukan oleh panjang atau pendeknya, melainkan oleh wholeness atau kesempurnaan secara makna. Sebagai contoh, kata STOP merupakan sebuah teks, walaupun hanya terdiri dari satu kata saja. Ketika seseorang berhenti di depan lampu lalu lintas karena melihat lampu berwarna merah dan diterjemahkan berhenti atau stop maka stop dalam konteks ini adalah sebuah teks. Sebaliknya, jika kata STOP diambil dari sebuah tulisan tesis misalnya, dia bukanlah teks. Selain tidak jelas apa maknanya juga tidak tahu konteks field (apa) dan tenor (untuk siapa) kata STOP tersebut ditujukan. To sum up, text refers to words or sentences woven together to create a single whole (Christie and Misson, 1998: 8 dikutip Emilia, 2011: 4).
Sebuah teks tidak berdiri sendiri, dia selalu mempunyai konteks. Kon (con) artinya penyerta; konteks bisa diartikan sesuatu yang menyertai teks. Ada tiga elemen yang menyertai teks, pertama field, kedua tenor, dan ketiga mode. Berbicara field artinya kita sedang melihat teks memiliki topik yang dibicarakanya, sedangkan tenor mengacu pada teks memiliki arah untuk siapa teks dibuat dan dengan cara apa menyampaikannya, lisan ataukah tulisan, itulah yang disebut mode. Sebuah teks didalamnya memiliki apa yang dikupasnya, kepada siapa teks tersebut ditujukan dan dengan cara apa kupasan itu disampaikan.
Teks yang baik mempunyai unsur koherensi dan kohesi. Koherensi terdiri dari dua macam. Pertama koherensi situasional yakni ketika teks itu dibaca (jika bentuknya tulisan) atau didengar (jika bentuknya lisan) pembaca (pendengar) mampu mengenali field, tenor dan mode yang digunakannya. Kedua koherensi generik, yakni teks dapat dikenali jenisnya misalnya prosedur, recount, deskriptif atau jenis teks lainnya.
Ketika teks memiliki ‘semantic tie’ maka teks tersebut memiliki kohesi. Alat kohesi untuk teks diantaranya konjungsi yang mampu membuat hubungan antar kalimat menjadi jelas.
Dalam menyampaikan sebuah teks, intertekstualitas akan terlibat. Makna istilah intertektualitas adalah setiap teks berkait kepada teks lainnya. Ketika seseorang berbicara tentang sebuah sepeda, maka dengan sendirinya baik dirinya sendiri sebagai pembicara ataupun lawan bicaranya telah mengenal sebelumnya dengan konsep sepeda. Seorang ahli Jurnal, Moon, menyebutkan bahwa learning is relating prior knowledge to new learning material. Ini menunjukkan bahwa ada kaitan atau interteks antar apa yang kita miliki sekarang dengan yang telah kita miliki sebelumnya.
Pertanyaannya apa hubungan TEKS dengan GBA?
Jawaban untuk pertanyaan ini tidak dapat disampaikan dengan singkat. Pertama kita harus menengok ke belakang dari mana GBA berasal dan mengapa berkembang biak di Indonesia. Kedua, kita harus mengetahui konsep GBA itu sendiri sehingga kita dapat mengenal secara utuh jatidiri GBA sehingga diadopsi dalam kurikulum nasional Indonesia.
SFL merupakan singkatan dari Systemic Functional Linguistic berupa cara pendekatan terhadap grammar dengan melihat dari sudut pragmatik atau bagaimana bahasa digunakan. Dasar bagaimana bahasa digunakan menjadi titik tolak pengajaran berbasis Genre. Dalam kehidupan nyata, manusia tidak serta merta bisa menulis karena kemampuan menulis tidak ‘given’ atau sudah terkuasai dengan sendirinya tanpa dipelajari seperti kemampuan berbicara pada anak-anak. Kemampuan menulis harus dibimbing atau diberi intervene pada saat proses menulis itu terjadi. Pendekatan mengajar menulis, berkembang marak dengan menerapkan pendekatan proses. Pendekatan ini dikritik oleh teoriman GBA dengan alasan diatas yakni kemampuan menulis tidak given.
Genre Based Approach atau Pendekatan Berbasis Genre (jenis teks) merupakan pengajaran yang memberikan bekal pengalaman belajar kepada siswa tentang berbagai jenis teks sehingga mereka mengenal beragam teks untuk memudahkan mereka di kemudian hari seperti misalnya ketika berhadapan dengan teks pada saat perkuliahan terjadi. GBA pertema berkembang di Australia. Halliday memperkenal Linguistik Fungsional Sistemik dan menjadi ilham bagi berkembanganya GBA.
Seperti halnya pendekatan pengajaran yang lain, GBA memiliki keterkaitan dengan pendekatan-pendekatan pengajaran yang telah dipergunakan sebelumnya. Sebagai contoh Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL). Beberapa prinsip CTL digunakan pula pada GBA dengan istilah yang berbeda. Prinsip Inquiry Learning, berpikir kritis, kemampuan siswa bertanya, prinsip constructivism, learning community, modeling, penilaian otentik dan refleksi terwadahi pada empat langkah pengajaran GBA.
- Building Knowledge of Field (BkoF)
Tahap ini diberikan untuk membangun pengetahuan atau latar belakang pengetahuan siswa mengenai topik yang akan ditulisnya (Freez, 2002; Gibbons, 2002, 2009, dikutip Emilia 2011: 33)
Langkah-langkah pengajaran yang dapat dilakukan diantaranya:
Diumpakan materi yang akan diajarkan adalah teks Discussion
– Berikan siswa tajuk rencana yang diambil dari koran berbahasa Indonesia. Kegiatan ini membantu siswa untuk bisa mengenal apa opini penulis dan bagaimana stance penulis terhadap sebuah isu
– Berikan siswa ‘editorial’ berbahasa Inggris misalnya dari The Jakarta Post
– Ajak siswa untuk bisa melihat kesamaan bentukan antara kedua koran tersebut
– Tulis jurnal untuk refleksi
– Gali pemahaman siswa mengenai apakah mereka pernah melakukan diskusi, apakah berhasil?
– Berikan siswa sebuah teks yang mengadung isu dilihat dari dua sudut pandang berbeda, misalnya “Is X-Ray Examination Necessary?”
– Guru bersama siswa membuat ringkasan
– Siswa mencatat ekspresi penting seperti: 60% people agree…. however, not all people agree with …., as the result of controversy, many people….
– Siswa menerima student worksheet berisi pertanyaan yang berisi pemahaman tentang isi teks
– Siswa menulis jurnal.
– Tayangkan pertanyaan “Food Miles: Advantage or Disadvantage?”
– Siswa diminta menyampaikan secara lisan pendapat mereka mengenai “trade’ dan ‘global warming’ sebagai pengantar berpikir kritis untuk mendiskusikan masalah Food Miles
– Berikan komentar-komentar yang telah dikumpulkan atas Food Miles yang diberikan dan dikoleksikan sebelumnya
– Siswa membahas untung ruginya melakukan atau berpatisipasi dalam kegiatan Food Miles
– Siswa menulis jurnal.
Secara eksplisit guru menerangkan stuktur generik dan fitur-fitur linguistik teks berbentuk discussion. Buatlah tabel analisis teks agar siswa dengan mudah mengkaji struktur generik dan lexicogramtikal setiap kalimat. Selain itu disampaikan pula tujuan komunikatif teks dilihat dari social purpose.
Ditutup dengan siswa mengkaji sendiri teks yang telah disediakan dan menulis pada jurnal.
- Joint Construction of text (JCot)
Pertemuan ini ditujukan untuk melihat rangkaian recursive pada sebuah proses menulis. Guru menjadi scriber. Tulis pada papan tulis sebuah isu Should I Social Network or Not? Minta siswa untuk menyampaikan topik dan guru menuliskannya pada papan tulis. Ajak siswa untuk berani menyampaikan sebuah argumen positif bersosial networking. Lakukan kegiatan seperti ini sampai teks discussion lengkap. Setelah teks lengkap, perlihatkan bahwa teks yang dibuat bersama-sama ini belum bagus. Lakukan revisi teks. Tunjukkan bagaimana ada kalimat yang dibuang, diganti, grammarnya diperbaiki, alat kohesi ditambahkan dan seterusnya.
Setelah itu edit dan tutup dengan proofreading. Kegiatan ini lebih efektif dan efisien ketimbang meminta siswa untuk mengkonstruksi teks bersama temannya (Emilia, 2011)
Sebelum kelas berakhir, siswa menulis jurnal.
- Independent Construction of Text (ICot)
Siswa diberi ‘ideas card’ siswa dipersilakan untuk memilih isu yang hendak mereka kembangkan menjadi sebuah teks. Mereka diharapkan menunjukkan pemahaman dan kepiawaian dalam menulis teks discussion setelah mengikuti serangkaian kegiatan di atas.
Kegiatan ditutup dengan menulis jurnal.
Ketidakberhasilan mengajar bahasa Inggris yang selama ini dialami beberapa guru (penulis contoh realnya), salah satunya disebabkan karena belum kenal baik siapa dan apa GBA, guru sudah serta merta mengajar dan ‘mengaku’ jika mengajarnya menggunakan pendekatan berbasis genre.
Semenjak 2006 penulis berSK untuk mengajar SMA dan telah mendengar istilah GBA serta ada bisik-bisik HARUS mengajar bahasa Inggris dengan GBA. Tapi pada kenyataannya tidak mengaplikasikan GBA, karena tidak tahu juga tidak paham harus kemana mencari informasi tentang GBA.
Chapter 2. Translation theory before the twentieth century
The ‘word-for-word’ (literal) vs. ‘sense-for sense’ (free) debate
The vitalization of the vernacular: Luther and the German Bible
Key notions of ‘fidelity’, ;spirit’; and ‘truth’
The influence of Dryden and the triad of metaphrase, paraphrase, imitation
Attempts at a more systematic prescriptive approach from Dolet and Tytler
Schleiermacher: a separate language of translation and respect for the foreign
The vagueness of the terms used to describe translation
2.1 ‘Word-for-word’ or ‘sense-for-sense?’
In Roman times, word-for-word was exactly what it said. Cicero disparaged (criticize), and also Horace who is famous with his Ars Poetica. St Jerome disparaged word for word approach because it produces an absurd translation, cloaking the sense of the original. On the other hand, sense for sense, allowed the sense or content of the ST to be translated.
2.2 Martin Luther
The preoccupation of the Roman Catholic Church was for the ‘correct’ established meaning of the Bible to be transmitted. Any translation diverging(different) from the accepted interpretation was likely to be deemed heretical and be censured or banned. Non literal or non-accepted translation came to be seen and be used as a weapon against the church.
MARTIN LUTHER influenced translation into East Middle German of New Testament (1522)
2.3 Faithfulness, spirit and truth
FLORA AMOS, sees the theory of translation in her “Early Theory of Translation” as by no means a record of easily distinguishable, orderly progression” . Amos notes that early translator often differed considerably in the meaning they gave to terms such as faithfulness, accuracy and the word ‘translation’ itself.
LOUIS KELLY looks in detail at the history of translation theory, starting with the teaching of the writers of Antiquity and tracing the history of inextricably tangled term FIDELITY (the faithful interpreter avoid word-for-word. SPIRIT (creative energy or inspiration), TRUTH (having the sense of content)
2.4 Early attempts at systemic translation theory: Dryden, Dolet and Tytler
à Free approach to translation by English poet and translator JOHN DRYDEN
(1) METAPHRASE: word-for-word and line-by-line translation, which correspond to literal translation;
(2) PARAPHRASE: translation with latitude (freedom), where the author is kept in view by the translator, so as never to be lost, but his words are not so strictly followed by his sense; this involves changing whole phrases and more or less corresponds to faithful or sense-for-sense translation.
(3) IMITATION: forsaking (leave) both word and sense; this correspond to Cowley’s very free translation and is more or less adapatation.
ETIENNE DOLET, set out 5 principles in order of importance
(1) the translator (tt) must perfectly understand the sense and material of the original author, although he should feel free to clarify obscurities (not known/not clear)
(2) tt should have a perfect knowledge of both Sl and TL
(3) tt should avoid word-for-word renderings
(4) tt should avoid Latinate and unusual form
(5) tt should assemble and liaise word eloquently (clear) to avoid clumsiness (awkward)
TYTLER à Three general laws/rules
(1) the translation should give a complete transcript of the ideas of the original work
(2) the style and manner of writing should be the same character with that of the original
(3) The translation should have all the ease (move) of the original composition
1st law of Tytler = 1,2 principles of Dolet à tt have a perfect knowledge
2nd of Tytler= 5 Doletà identifying true character= correct taste
2.5 Scleiermacher and the valorization of the foreign
FRIEDRICH SCHLEIEMACHER (German theologian & translation, 1813) known as modern Protestant theology & modern HERMENEUTICS (= a Romantic approach to interpretation based not on absolute truth but on the individual’s inner feeling and understanding)
Types of translator working:
(1) DOLMETSHER: who translates commercial texts
(2) UBERSTZER: who works on scholarly & artistic texts
Chapter 3 Equivalence and equivalent effect
The problem of equivalence in meaning discussed by Jacobson (1959) and central to translation studies for two decades
Nida’s adaptation of transformational grammar model, and ‘scientific’ methods to analyze meaning in his work on Bible translating
Nida’s concepts of formal equivalence and dynamic equivalence and the principle of equivalent effect: focus on the receptor
Newmark semantic and communicative translation
3.1 Roman Jacobson: the nature of linguistic meaning and equivalence
(1) INTERLINGUAL; (2) INTRALINGUAL; (3) INTERSEMIOTIC
Jakobson follows the relation set out by SAUSSURE (SIGNIFIER = the spoken and written signal; SIGNIFIED= the concept signified(mean)). Signifier & signified form the linguistic sign, but that sign is arbitrary or unmotivated (Saussure: 1916). Jakobson consider the problem of equivalence of meaning between words in different languages. à there is ordinarily no full equivalence between code-units”
3.2 Nida and ‘the science of translating”
EUGINE NIDA (1964) describes various ‘scientific approach to meaning’, he tries to translate Bible by incorporating linguistics borrowing approach from CHOMSKY semantic and pragmatics’ work on syntactic structure which formed the theory GENERATIVE-TRANSFORMATIONAL GRAMMAR (Chomsky, 1957).
3.2.1 The nature of meaning: advances in semantics and pragmatics
Meaning is broken into LINGUISTIC MEANING (borrowing elements of Chomsky’s model) REFERENTIAL MEANING (the denotative dictionary meaning) EMOTIVE MEANING (connotative meaning). Techniques to determine inferential and emotive meaning focus on analyzing the structure of words and differentiating similar words in related lexical fields. These include
(1) HIERARCHICAL STRUCTURING (differentiates series of words according ti their level, for example superordinate ANIMAL and its hyponyms GOAT, DOG, COW) and
(2) COMPONENTIAL ANALYSIS (seek to identify and discriminate specific feature of a range of related words, for example grandmother, mother, cousin)
(3) SEMANTIC STRUCTURE ANALYSIS (separates out visually the different meanings of spirit- demon, angels- according to their characteristics-non human, good)
3.2.2 the influence of Chomsky
Chomsky generative-transformational structure model analyses sentences into a series of related levels governed by rules.
(1) DEEP STRUCTURE, phase structure rules generate and underlying which is
(2) Transformed by transformational rules relating one underlying structure to another (eg. Active to passive) to produce
(3) A final SURFACE STRUCTURE, which itself is subject to phonological and morphemic rules.
The basic structure is KERNEL SENTENCE which is simple, declarative, require the minimum of transformation. So kernels ‘are the basic structural elements out of which language builds its elaborate surface structures’ taken from ST surface structure.
3.2.3 Formal and dynamic equivalence and the principle of equivalent effect
Nida discarded the old term ‘literal, free and faithful translation. He introduce
(1) FORMAL EQUIVALENCE, focuses on the message itself in both form and content
(2) DYNAMIC EQUIVALENCE the relationship between receptor and message should be substantially the same as that which existed between the original receptors and the message. The success of translation depends on achieving equivalent response, it should cover four basic elements of translation, which are
(1) Making sense
(2) Conveying the spirit and manner of the original
(3) Having a natural and easy form of expression
(4) Producing a similar response
3.3 Newmark: semantic and communicative translation
(1) COMMUNICATIVE TRANSLATION attempts to produce its readers an effect as possible to that obtained on the readers if the original. (=Nida’s dynamic equivalence) ‘craft’
(2) SEMANTIC TRANSLATION attempts to render, as closely as the semantic and syntactic structures of the second language allow; the exact contextual meaning of the original. (= Nida’s formal equivalence) ‘art’
3.4 Koller: Korrespondenz and Aquivalenz
Nida’s move towards scientific translation influence Germany. Important works on equivalence was carried out by WERNER KOLLER (1979) he differentiate 5 different type of equivalence:
(1) DENOTATIVE EQUIVALENCE is related to equivalence of the extralinguistic content of a text. or ‘content invariance’
(2) CONNOTATIVE EQUIVALENCE is related to lexical choices esp. between near-synonym or ‘stylistic equivalence’
(3) TEXT-NORMATIVE EQUIVALENCE is related to text types à links to Katharina Reiss
(4) PRAGMATIC EQUIVALENCE or ‘communicative equivalence’, is oriented toward the receiver of the text or massage
(5) FORMAL EQUIVALENCE is related to form and aesthetics of the text, or ‘expressive equivalence’
Chestermen (1989) equivalence is obviously a central concept in translation theory.
Chapter 4 The Translation Shift Approach
Translation shifts= small linguistic change occurring in translation of ST to TT
Vinay and Dalbernet (1958): classical taxonomy of linguistic changes in translation
Catford (1965) term translation ‘shift’ in his linguistic approach to translation
Theoretical work by Chezh scholar Levy, Popovic, Miko (1960-1970s) who adopt stylistic and aesthetic parameters of language
Most detail model of translation shift: van Leuven-Zwart’s, an attempt to match shift to discourse and narratological function
The problem of the subjectivity of the invariant that it used to compare ST and TT
4.1 Vinay and Dalbernet’s model
Vinay and Dalbernet carried out a comparative stylistic analysis of French and English. Using the strategies DIRECT TRANSLATION and OBLIQUE TRANSLATION
(1) BORROWING; THE SL word is transferred directly ti the TL
(2) CALQUE; special borrowing, SL expression or structure is transferred in a literal translation
(3) LITERAL TRANSLATION; word-for-word
(4) TRANSPOSITION; the change of one part of speech for another without changing the sense
(5) MODULATION; change semantics and point of view of the SL
(6) EQUIVALENCE; translating idiom and proverbs
(7) ADAPTATION; a changing cultural reference when a situation in the source culture does not exist in the target culture.
(1) SERVITUDE; refer to obligatory transposition and modulation due ti a difference between the two language system
(2) OPTION; refers to non-obligatory changes that are due to the translator’s own style and preferences
Five steps for the translator to follow in moving from ST to TT
(1) Identify the unit of translation
(2) Examine the SL text, evaluating the descriptive, affective and intellectual; content of the units
(3) Reconstruct the metalinguistic context of the message
(4) Evaluate the stylistic effects
(5) Produce and revise the TT
4.2 Catford and translation ‘shifts’
Catford follows the Firthian and Hallidayan linguistic model, which analyses language as communication, operating functionally context and on a range of different level (phonology, graphology, grammar, lexis) and ranks (sentence, group, word, morpheme). Catford makes an important distinction between formal and textual equivalence, which was later developed by Koller.
(1) FORMAL CORRESPONDENT I is any TL category (unit, class, element of structure etc.) which can be said to occupy, as nearly as possible, the ‘same’ place in the ‘economy’ of the TL as the given SL category occupies in the SL.
(2) TEXTUAL EQUIVALENT is any TL text or portion of the text which is observed on a particular occasion … to be the equivalent of a given SL text or portion of a text.
The shift according to Catford
(1) A LEVEL SHIFT would be something which is expressed by grammar in one language and lexis in another
(2) A CATEGORY SHIFTS
(a) STRUCTURAL SHIFTS; shift in grammatical structure (from active to passive)
(b) CLASS SHIFTS; comprise shifts from one part of speech to another (from adjective into adverb) p.61
(c) UNIT SHIFTS/ RANK SHIFTS; the translation equivalent to the TL as at the rank of to the SL.
(d) INTRA-SYSTEM SHIFTS; this shifts take place when the SL and TL process approximately corresponding systems but where the translation involves selection of a non-corresponding term in the TL system
4.3 Czeh writing on translation shifts p. 62
CHECHOLOSVAKIA introduces a LITERARY ASPECT, of that the EXPRESSIVE FUNCTION or style of a text. LEVY looks closely at the surface structure of the ST and TT, with particular to poetry translation, and sees literary translation as both reproductive and a creative labour with the goal of equivalent aesthetic effect. He sees the real-world of translation work as being ‘pragmatic’.
4.4 Van Leuven-Zwart’s comparative-descriptive model of translation shift
Kitty van Leuven-Zwart from Amsterdam attempts to systematize comparison and to build in a discourse framework above sentence level. The model is ‘intended for the description of integral translations of fictional texts; and comprises:
(1) COMPARATIVE MODEL involves a detailed of ST and TT and a classifications of all the microstructural shifts (within sentences, clauses and phrases). The methods as follow
– Passage is divided into ‘comprehensible textual unit called TRANSEMES (she sat up quickly)
– ARCHITRANSEME invariant core sense of the ST transeme (to sit up)
– A comparison is then made of each separate transeme with the architranseme and the relationship between the two transemes in established
Main categories of van Zwart’s comparative model p.64
(2) DESCRIPTIVE MODEL is a macrostructural model, designed for the analysis of translated literature. it attempts to interweave the concepts of ‘discourse level (the linguistic expression of the fictional world) and ‘story level’ (the narration of the text, including narrational point of view) with the three linguistic metafunctions (interpersonal, ideational and textual).
Chapter 5 Functional Theories of translation
Functional theories from Germany in the 1970-1980s mark a move away from static linguistic typologies
Reiss stresses equivalence at text level, linking language functions to text types and translation strategy
Holz-Manttari’s theory of translational action: a communicative process involving a series of players
Vermeer’s skopos theory of translation strategy depending on purpose of TT is expanded in Reiss and Vermeer
Nord’s translation-oriented text analysis: a functional approach with more attention to ST
5.1 Text Type-Katharina Reiss
KATHARINA REISS builds in the concept of equivalence but views the text rather than word or sentence as the level at which communication is achieved and at which equivalence must be bought. The text types
(1) INFORMATIVE à plain communication of facts: information, knowledge, opinions (report, lecture)
(2) EXPRESSIVE à creative composition (poem) p.74
(3) OPERATIVE à including behavioral responses; the aims of the appellative function is to appeal to or persuade the reader/receiver (advertisement)
(4) AUDIOMEDIAL texts, such as films and visual and spoken advertisement
5.2 Translational Action – Holz Mantaari
Holz mantaari takes up concepts from communication theory and action theory with the aim of providing and guidelines applicable to a wide range of professional translation situations.
Interlingual translation is described as ‘translational action from a source text’ and as a communicative process involving a series of roles and players:
(1) THE INITIATOR, the company/individual who needs the translation
(2) THE COMISSIONER, the individual who contact the translator
(3) THE ST PRODUCER, the individual within the company
(4) THE TT PRODUCER, the translator
(5) THE TT USER, the person who uses the TT
(6) THE TT RECEIVER, the final recipient of the TT
Relevant features are described according to the age-old split of CONTENT (factual information and communicative strategy) and FORM (terminology and cohesive elements)
5.3 Skopos Theory –Hans J. van Vermeer
Skopos is the Greek word for ‘aim’ or ‘purpose’. the basic underlying ‘rules’ of the theory
(1) The translatum (TT) is determined by its skopos
(2) A TT is an offer information in a target culture and TL concerning an offer information in a source culture and SL
(3) A TT does not initiate an offer information in a clearly reversible way
(4) A TT must be internally coherent
(5) A TT must be coherent with the ST
(6) The five rules above stand in hierarchical order, with the skopos rule predominating (the most important)
5.4 Translation-oriented text analysis – Christine Nord
CHRISTINE NORD (1988) presents a more detailed functional model incorporating elements of text analysis which examines text organization at or above sentence level. These are known as
(1) DOCUMENTARY TRANSLATION, serves as a document of a source culture communication between the author and the ST recipient
(2) INSTRUMENTAL TRANSLATION serves as an independent message-transmitting instrument an a new communicative action in the target culture, and is intended to fulfill its communicative purpose without the recipient being conscious of reading or hearing a text
Chapter 6 Discourse and register analysis approach
In the 1990s discourse analyses came to prominence in translation studies. Text analysis normally concentrates on describing in the way in which texts are organized (sentence, structure, cohesion); discourse analysis looks at the way language communicates meaning and social and power relation.
6.1 the Hallidayan model of language and discourse
HALLIDAY’s model discourse analysis is based on SYSTEMIC FUNCTIONAL GRAMMAR, is geared to the study of language as communication, seeing meaning in the writer’s linguistic choices and systematically relating these choices to a wider sociocultural framework. The systemic framework comprises three elements FIELD (ideational meaning), TENOR (interpersonal meaning), MODE (thematic and information structure, cohesion) p.91
6.2 House’s model of translation quality assessment
JULIANE HOUSE introduces the model of systematic comparison of the textual ‘profile of the ST and TT. The register analysis of both ST and TT according to their realization through LIXICAL, SYNTACTIC, and TEXTUAL MEANs refer to:
(1) THEME-DYNAMIC, thematic structure and cohesion
(2) CLAUSAL LINKAGE, additive (and, in addition) adversative (but)
(3) ICONIC LINKAGE, parallelism of structure
The translation can be categorized as:
(1) OVERT TRANSLATION, is a TT does not purport (do) to be an original
(2) COVERT TRANSLATION, is a translation which enjoys the status of an original source text in the target culture.
6.3 Baker’s text and pragmatic level analysis: a course book for translation
MONA BAKER (1992) looks at equivalence at a series of levels: a word, above-word, grammar, thematic structure, cohesion and pragmatic level.
6.4 Hatim and Mason: the semiotic level of context and discourse
BASIL HATIM & IAN MASON (1997) both pay extra attention to the realization in translation of ideational and interpersonal function and incorporate into their model a semiotic level of discourse.
6.5 Criticism of discourse and register analysis approaches to translation
Discourse analysis model have become extremely popular among many linguistics-oriented translation theorist of a text. however, the Hallidayan model has been attacked by:
(1) Fish (1981), cause to struggle to cope with the variety of interpretation of literature
(2) Gutt (1991) raises question whether it is possible to recover authorial intention of ST function from register analysis
Chapter 7 System theories
Linguistics broadened out from static models in the 1960s to an approach which incorporates first skopos theory + register + discourse analysis, relating language its sociocultural function. In the 1970s another reaction to the static perspective models was POLYSYSTEM THEORY which show translated literature as a system operating in the larger social, literary and historical system. This was important move, since translated literature had up to that point mostly been dismissed as a derivative, second-rate form. polysystem theory fed into developments in the descriptive translation studies a branch of translation studies that aim in identifying norms and laws of translation.
7.1 Polysystem theory
Polysystem theory developed by Israeli scholar ITAMAR EVEN-ZOHAR borrowing ideas from Russian Formalists of the 1920s, who had worked on literary historiography. A literary work is part of a system and defined as ‘ a SYSTEM of functions of the literary order which are continual relationship with other orders’. Even-Zohar emphasis that translated literature operates a system:
(1) In the way the TL selects works for translation
(2) In the way translation norms, behavior and policies are influenced by other co-system.
The POLYSYSTEM is concerned as a hetereogeneous, hierarchized conglomerate (or system) of system which interact to bring about on going, dynamic process of evolution within the polysystem as a whole (Shuttleworth &Cowie 1997).
7.2 Toury and descriptive translation study
GIDEON TOURY focused on developing a general theory of translation. Toury proposes a methodology for the branch of descriptive translation study (DTS). Systematic DTS incorporate a description of the product and the wider role of the sociocultural sysyem:
(1) Situate the text within the culture system, looking at its significance or acceptability
(2) Compare the ST and the TT for shifts, identifying relationship between ‘coupled part’ of ST and TT segments, and attempting generalization about the underlying concept of translation
(3) Draw implications for decision-making in future translating
The aim of Toury’s case is to distinguish trends of translation behacior, to make generalizations regarding the decision-making process of the translator and then to ‘reconstruct’ the norms that have been in operation in the translation and make hypothesis that can be tested by future descriptive studies. The NORM = the translation of general value or ideas shared by a community-as to what is right or wrong, adequate or inadequate-into performance instruction appropriate for and applicable to particular situations. P.113
The LAW OF GROWING STANDARDIZATION = in translation, textual relation obtaining the original are often modified, sometimes ignored, in favor of habitual options offered by a target repertoire.
The LAW OF INTERFERENCE = ST linguistic features of TT as ‘ a kind of default’. Interference refer to ST linguistic features mainly lexical and syntactical patterning being copied in the TT.
7.3 Chesterman’s translation norms
ANDREW CHESTERMAN (1997) states that all norms ‘exert a prescriptive pressure’. The norms covers
(1) PRODUCT or EXPECTANCY NORM are established by the expectancies of readers of a translation (of a given type) concerning what a translation (of this type) should be like
– Expectancy norms allow evaluative judgments about translation since readers have a notion of what is appropriate or acceptable
– Expectancy norms are sometimes ‘validated by norm-authority of some kind for example teacher, literary critic and publisher’s reader can confirm the prevalent norm by encouraging translation that confirm with that norm.
(2) PROFESSIONAL NORM ‘regulate process of the translation itself”
(a) THE ACCOUNTABILITY NORM, ETHICAL norm dealing with professional standards of integrity and thoroughness
(b) THE COMMUNICATION NORM, SOCIAL norm, the translator, the communication ‘expert’ works to ensure maximum communication between the parties
(c) THE ‘REALTION’ NORM, LINGUISTIC norm which deals with the relation between ST and TT.
7.4 Other models of descriptive translation studies:
Lambert and van Gorp and the Manipulation School divided scheme
(1) PRELIMINARY DATA, information on the title page, metatext and the general strategy (whether translation is partial or complete)
(2) MACRO-LEVEL, the division of text, titles and presentation of the chapters, the internal narrative structure and any overt authorial comment.
(3) MICRO-LEVEL, the identification of shifts on different linguistic levels, include lexical level, grammatical pattern, narrative, point of view and modality
(4) SYSTEMIC CONTEXT, micro- and macro-levels, text and theory are compared and norms identified.
Chapter 8 Varieties of cultural studies
SUSAN BASSNETT and ANDRE LEFEVERE go beyond language and focus on the interaction between translation and culture, on the way in which culture impacts and constrains translation and on the larger issue of context, history and convention à collection fo essay Translation. History and culture (1990)
8.1 Translation as rewriting
ANDRE LEFEVERE worked in comparative literature departments in Belgium and then in USA. He focuses particularly on the examination of a ‘very concrete factors’ that systematically govern the reception. Acceptance or rejection of literary texts; that is ‘issues such as power, ideology, institution and manipulation.’
Lefevere describes literary system in which translation functions as being controlled by:
(1) PROFESSIONALS WITHIN THE LITERAY SYSTEM,
(2) PATRONAGE (support) OUTSIDE THE LITERARY SYSTEM, these are powers (persons, institutions) that can further hinder the reading, writing and rewriting of literature
(a) THE IDEOLOGICAL COMPONENT,
(b) THE ECONOMIC COMPONENENT
(c) THE STATUS COMPONENT
(d) THE DOMINANT POETICS
(A) LITERARY DEVICES
(B) THE CONCEPT OF THE ROLE OF LITERATURE. p 129
8.2 Translation and gender
SHERRY SIMON (1996) approaches translation from gender-studies angle. à sees a language of sexism in translation studies, with its images of dominance, fidelity, faithfulness and betrayal. TRANSLATION PROJECT = for feminist translation, fidelity is to be directed toward neither the author nor the reader, but toward writing project-a project in which both writer and translator participate.
8.3 Postcolonial theory
Simon links gender and cultural studies to the developments in POSTCOLONIALISM.
Chapter 9 Translation the foreign: the (in)visibility of translation
Venuti notably the ‘invisibility of translation and the translator in Anglo American culture and the ‘domesticating and ‘foreignizing translation strategies which are available to the translator. Berman’s ‘negative analytic’ attacking the homogenization of the translation of literary prose.
9.1 Venuti: the cultural and political agenda of translation
INVISIBILITY: the translator’s situation and activity in contemporary Anglo-American culture, thus creating an illusion of transparency, (b) by the way the translated texts are typically read in the target culture p146
A translated text, whether prose or poetry, fiction or non-fiction, is judged acceptable by most publishers, reviewers and readers when it reads fluently, when the absence of any linguistics or stylistic peculiarities makes it seems transparent, giving the appearance that it reflects the foreign writer’s personality or intention or the essential meaning of the foreign text-the appearance in other words, that the translation is not in fact a translation, but the ‘original’. (Venuti: 1995)
DOMESTICATION: ethnocentric reduction of the foreign text to target language cultural values. This entails translating in a transparent fluent, ‘invisible’ style in order to minimize the foreignness of the TT.
FOREIGNIZATION: entails choosing a foreign text and developing a translation method along lines which are excluded by dominant cultural values in the target language à the translator leaves the writer alone, as much as possible and moves the reader towards the writer. The foreignizing method non-fluent also term RESISTANCY or estranging translation style designed to make visible the presence of the translator by highlighting the foreign identity of the ST and protecting it from the ideological dominance of the target culture.
9.2 Antoine Berman: negative analytic of translat