There are four main strands in philosophy. All of which are Idealism, Realism, Pragmatism and Existentialism.
Idealism focuses in making micromind or souls and macromind or universal force can be united harmoniously. To make this happens so it needs contemplation and introspection and be tested through time. Then truth is found. The effect of this to education is the existence of academic disciplines as representation of truth.
Realism emphasizes on physical world. It demands the use of senses that verified by rational thought. To get knowledge we must do sorting, classifying and abstracting towards information. The knowledge is packaged in school by names as history, mathematics, literature and sciences.
Pragmatism relies on change and adaptation and the truth is what works. It means that we learn through experience and put believe into practice. Knowledge is determined to solve problem. That’s why curriculum preferred to be centered on problems in the form of interdisciplinary approach.
Existentialism sees human from the existence in the meaningless world. Humans are free to choose lives to give meaning into their angst status. It affects education not to set curriculum. Freedom at choosing what to learn will lead students to be independence and responsible person.