Home » TEACHING METHODS » PLANNING LESSONS (Harmer: 2007, 156-165)

PLANNING LESSONS (Harmer: 2007, 156-165)

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According to Spratt and Pulverness (2005) lesson plan is a set of notes that help teachers to think through what we are going to teach and how we are going to reach it.

Reasons for planning

Professional and commitment teachers devote time to thinking about the class; one of the forms of the thinking is lesson plan.

Lesson plan gives a framework, an overall shape. What the students to reach, and how to reach that. Plan also reminds teachers what they intend to do. Another reason for making lesson plan is when a teacher is to be observed as part of assessment or performance review.

Lesson shapes

A good lesson needs to contain a judicious blend of coherence and variety. Coherence means that students can see a logical pattern to the lesson. To have an effective lesson, teacher has to think carefully about the balance of engagement, study and activation.


Planning questions

Teachers must consider these seven fundamental questions when they decide what activities to take to a lesson.

  1. Who exactly are the students for this activity?
  2. What do we want to do and why?

Decide what we want to do in the lesson in terms of both activities, skills and language. We also need to know why we want to do it.

3.      How long will it take?

4.      How does it work?

5.      What will be needed?

6.     What might go wrong?

7.    How will it fit with what comes before and after it?


Plan formats

The exact formats of the lesson plan may depend on the personal preferences of trainers, exam schemes or institutions, but the following elements are usually included:

  1. Description of the students
  2. Aims and objectives
  3. Procedures
  4. Anticipated problems
  5. Extra activities/ material (just in case)
  6. Material to be used in the lesson


One kind data which will help teachers evaluate lessons and activities is (1) feedback from students. Just give the student simple questions such as: Did you like that exercise? Did you find it useful? Or give students special evaluation forms where they have to rate different activities with a score, or put them in some kind of order and then add comments about what they thought.

Next (2) peer observation, invite a colleague into the classroom and them to observe what happens and make suggestions afterwards. (3) jornal, record the teachers’ thoughts about what happened as soon as possible after the lesson has finished. By doing so, teacher can read through the comments later abd reflect on how they now feel about what had happened.


1 Comment

  1. martha says:

    please how to use this section in lesson plan: Recent Topic Work and Recent Language Work.

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