Paraphrasing is a way to rewrite a certain issue using different words. Like summarizing, paraphrasing also demands the essence of the original issue kept the same. The difference is that paraphrase allows the usage of difference voice for the same topic. To do this, it does not only need to create different sentences which have the same meaning but also need to use thoughtful and clear sentences so that the paraphrasing does not leave the main points stated in the source text.
To present Existentialism written by Newman in paraphrase way with its original ideas maintained, it needs at least three steps to fulfill. First it is a must to understand what every sentences mean. Then, grab the main point of the sentence and finally, write the sentences in the difference words or different voice. When all these steps fulfilled, the sentences that have indirectly the same meaning gained.
According to Newman, Existentialists do not have interest in thing related to the creation of the universe. Hence, it focuses on the fact that human beings are here, in this universe, alive and exist in the physical world.
It is important to think the physical world and decide what life should be as individual. As individuals, we are free to make our lives the way we want to and choose to decide what we think better for our life. But at the same time, even we are free; we must consider other’s freedom too. Others are like every individuals are alone or angst. It means that each of us is alone in this world, responsible for ourselves in our meaningless world.
Even though we are alone, we must never feel desperate and stop searching for the shape of our lives. We can do a lot of things with and for ourselves so that our short lives will be meaningful.
Existentialists believe that morality is personal. This is in contradicting with pragmatists that make morality social. The reason why Existentialist do not let trust given to society because they assume that society tends to be oppressive. It can be said that responsible for ourselves alone, mean that we responsible for the whole society. Take one for example, when a lady responsible for herself it means that she morally accountable for her action as a representative of a society. Everybody as an individual has two roles, one is for herself as individual and the other is for the society as part of a certain social members.
Newman (1994) suggests that Idealists, Realists, and Pragmatists have their own theory of education which are compatible with their believe system. Meanwhile Existentialists does not propose a specific kind of education curricula. It offers a free choice in learning. Learners are free to decide any lessons that they think important to learn. Every learner has their own freedom to pick any lesson that they think it will facilitate their self-expression. It means that teaching should apply learner-centered curriculum. There is not what so called a set of curriculum for all. Existentialists consider each of the learners should be facilitated according to their competence and needs. And Existentialists believe that school must help learners learn how to find the answers, not learn how to get the answers.
The effect of Existentialism to schools is traced since 1960s when counterculture emerges in schools. Students are no longer the objects who should be taught by an authority like in the era of idealism. Hence, students are free to take the course which they think useful for their lives.
Teachers teach on the basis of psychology and honor students as an intact individual. Learners are no longer ranked based on their intelligence. Measurement and evaluation in education is carried out to find out whether the learner have found what they need to set lives outsides the classroom.
As Existentialists put morality on personal. Then, individuals are free to choose and do what they think good and right based on their own judgment. This leads to unwelcome situation that is personal responsibility as the essence in life is often forgotten. So that it is necessary to come to the era of modern philosophy. That is by blending existentialism and pragmatism. Unfortunately this blend also does not make the school and society better than when they were in the era of idealism and realism. What they call modern education theories are not more than just seeing school lives from outside. They never really touch the schools’ core and never create scholars who can prevent chaotic society from emerging.