It is probably true that English is the most widely used language in the world. As stated by Huddleston that:
English is used by around 400 million native speakers and a similar number of bilingual speakers in several dozen partially English-speaking country, and hundreds of millions more users in other countries where English is known as media (2005: 1).
The existence of English as a communication language accepted around the globe, it attracts non-English language speaking people to master it. Some of the countries put English in their syllabus as one of the courses. Some countries regard it as foreign language and some others as their second language.
Related to the fact above so that one purpose of this chapter report is to provide information about why people learn another language such as English besides their mother tongue. They devote their time, money and energy to learn English with clear goal to pursue.
The second purpose for this chapter report is to take a closer look at eight type teaching methods. It does not mean that other methods are not important to know. These eight methods have significance in influencing English teaching and learning in Indonesia and they are currently practiced today.
The last goal of writing this chapter report is to observe the view of language and language learning change from time to time. It is to allow us to see how linguists focus their attention towards language, and the effect of their work to the language learning.
A. Reasons for Learning, Teaching MethodS
- 1. Reasons for Learning
People learn a foreign language because they have good reason for that. The explanation below show why people learn foreign language. According to Harmer (2007: 11-12) the reasons for learning are:
a) They have moved into a target-language community and they need to be able to operate successfully within that community.
b) They need English for a Specific Purpose (ESP). Such students of ESP may need to learn legal language, or the language for tourism, banking or nursing.
c) They think it will be useful in some way for international communication and travel.
There are similar reasons found in Johnson about why people learn foreign language. She states five reasons as follow:
a) They need to master a foreign language for study purposes.
b) They want to integrate themselves within a certain culture.
c) They think trough learning foreign language; they can strengthen their own cultural identity.
d) They need English for the purpose of international communication with people from within their country.
e) They need English to facilitate international language with people from other countries (2001:5)
- 2. Teaching Methods
There are numbers of methods can be applied for maximizing students in teaching and learning activity. This chapter report will cover eight methods of teaching as proposed by Larsen-Freeman (1986) that provide meaningful and enjoyable language learning.
The methods are:
2.1 The Grammar-Translation Method
The purpose of this method is to make the students are able to read literature written in the target language.
The characteristics of this method are:
– Students are taught to translate from one language to another.
– Grammar is studied deductively.
– Emphasis on vocabulary and grammar.
– The meaning of the target language is made clear by translating it into students’ native language.
2.2 The Direct Method
Teachers who use Direct Method intend to make the students learn how to communicate in target language.
– Students need to associate meaning and the target language directly (never translate).
– Students speak in the target language a great deal and communicate as if they were in real situation.
– Language is primarily spoken, nor written.
– Vocabulary is emphasized over grammar.
2.3 The Audio Lingual Method
The purpose of this method is to make the students to be able to use the target language communicatively.
The characters of this method are:
– New vocabulary and structures are presented through dialogue.
– The dialogue is learned through imitation and repetition.
– Drills as repetition, backward, build-up, chain, substitution, transformation are conducted based upon the pattern present.
2.4 The Silent Way
The goal of Silent Way Method is to make the students us the language for self-expression-to express their thoughts, perceptions, and feelings.
The characters belong to this method are:
– Keeping with active role ascribed to the learner in the cognitive code approach.
– Students develop their own “inner criteria” for correctness.
– Reading is worked on form the beginning but follows from what students have learned to say.
– Silence is a tool; it helps to foster autonomy, or the exercise of initiative.
Through Suggestopedia teachers hope to accelerate the process by which students learn to use a foreign language for everyday communication.
The characters that are found:
– Learning is facilitated in a relaxed, comfortable experience.
– Students’ respect and trust to the teacher’s authority will retain information.
– Activating the learners; imagination will aid learning.
– One way that meaning is made clear is through mother tongue translation.
– Errors are to be tolerated, the emphasis being on content.
2.6 Community Language Learning
Developed by Charles A. Curran
Purpose: students learn how to use the target language communicatively
Role: Teacher as the counselor and learners are clients
– Language is for communication.
– Teacher and students are whole person.
– The teacher “counsel” the students.
– The native language is used to make the meaning clear.
– In groups, students can begin to feel a sense of community and can learn from each other well as well as the teacher.
2.7 The Total Physical Response Method
Developed by James Asher
Purpose: have the students enjoy their experience in learning to communicate in a foreign language in order to reduce stress.
– Meaning in the target language can often be conveyed through actions.
– Memory is activated through learner response.
– The imperative is a powerful linguistic device through which teacher can direct student behavior.
– Students can learn through observing as well as by performing the actions themselves.
– Students will begin to speak when they are ready.
2.8 T he Communicative Approach
Purpose: help the students to gain communicatively competent.
– Whenever possible “authentic language” –language as it used in the context- should be introduced.
– The target language is vehicle for classroom communication, not just the object of study.
– Communicative interaction encourages cooperative relationships among students.
– The social context of the communicative event is essential in giving meaning to the utterances.